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Professional Analytical and
Consulting Services, Inc.

Activated Carbon Research Tools

PACS Laboratory Tour

I. Activated Carbon Differentiation

PACS Station 1: Gravimetric Adsorption Energy Distribution
Full Carbon Adsorption Pore Characterization
Full range of pores – 7 orders of magnitude in relative pressure
Results in a polynomial format – for computer prediction programs
Can be directly translated to adsorption isotherms
Fit to Chi Square distribution to determine three key adsorption parameters

PACS Station 6: Mole Probe
Direct determination of three key characterization parameters
Total adsorption pore volume – standard Iodine number/butane number test
Average adsorption force – Heat of Adsorption test
Maximum adsorption force – Trace Adsorption test

II. Evaluation of Activated Carbons

PACS Station 2: Portable Differential Heat-Of-Adsorption (HOA)
Differential Heat of Adsorption – direct measure of adsorption differences
Heterogeneity Testing – interparticle, intraparticle, lot-to-lot variations

PACS Station 3: Kicker/Chaser
Displacement/extraction of spent carbon – identifies all adsorbed
Sample preparation to lower instrumental target compound detection limits

PACS Station 10: Detective Work
Carbon detective work – Graphite plate DNA, Electronic Microscope, PIXE ash, AC library

PACS Station 11: Catalytic Activity
Catalytic destruction of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
Conversion versus time – performance relative to a standard carbon

III. Performance Testing

PACS Station 4: Portable Minicolumn
Minicolumn testing using 100×325 mesh ‘HPLC’ columns
Model represents a million fold reduction in scale
Gas Phase or Liquid Phase systems
Self contained – transportable to customer site

PACS Station 9: QCM monitor
carbon coated quartz crystal microbalance
Continuous online monitoring of breakthrough in field adsorbers

IV. Development of New Carbons

PACS Station 5: Thermogravimetric (TGA) carbon activation
TGA Lab Activations of few granules of novel raw materials
Oxidation/characterization TGA and Activation TGA
New raw materials formulations can be evaluated in less than a week
Full range of possible products are determined – full product family
Full characterizations of products – use of computer prediction programs
Tailoring of pore structure to applications – within product family

PACS Station 7: Activated Carbon Impregnations
Lab impregnation and drying facilities
Preload/impregnate flavors, odors, menthol, pharmaceuticals, metals
Vacuum oven control partial pressure of ‘headspace’ above carbon
Targeted impregnations for ‘specific’ adsorption and chemical reaction problems

PACS Station 8: Carbon Samples Library
Uses growing AC library
Database of activated carbons, commercial and lab prepared samples
Computer preformance prediction allows comparison with library AC database
Determine rapidly if a novel solution is required

PACS Laboratories

Consulting on a wide variety of activated carbon issues
ASTM activated carbon testing
AWWA activated carbon testing
Metals and inorganic testing: AA, GFAA, ICP
Organics testing: GC, GC/MS, LC/MS, ICP/MS, TLC
Water testing standard methods
BET surface area / pore size / volume distribution
Microbiology testing
Software development
State-of-the-art Activated Carbon Research Tools


For other laboratory testing service, method development, R&D, software or consulting service needs, contact:


For Carbon Conferences or Short Courses in public sessions or at your time and place, contact us.

PACS provides testing, courses and consulting at the client's time and place, and twice a year carbon conferences.

PACS Positions Available:

  • Laboratory chemist for activated carbon group. Will train!

PACS has positions available for professional scientific service providers and has provided these services for over 38 years. PACS will accept proposals for short courses, consultants, activated carbon conference directors for focused conference subjects, and other needed services. New ideas are welcomed.

PACS, Inc.
409 Meade Drive
Coraopolis, PA 15108